Bund and its factions

Bund was the very sect that lead the nation-wide student organization, Zen-gaku-ren, and fought the 60's Anti-Japan-US Security Treaty struggle so heroically that it became a legend in postwar Japan. Along with Kaku-kyo-do, it marked the advent of the non-JCP, New Left. However, unlike Kaku-kyo-do, its main concern was not organizational solidity and expansion; rather it acted spontaneously and, in consequence, collapsed beautifully. Thereafter it created various factions, and despite attempts at reorganizing it, it has been dispersing. One crucial thing about Bund's ‘dissemination,' however, is that it has created various independent thinkers and activists around it.

Bund Related Information Site

Cyber-Bund is a place of communication for those who once participated in Bund. Here we can read writings by earlier members of Bund.

(Underground Bund) is a site of Bund ‘Otaku', where we can read various historical documents of Bund.

Existing Bund Factions

戦旗/共産同 (日向派)

The members are over 500. The organs are SENKI and Risen (理戦)It has a student group (meaning it has a potency of survival and growth).
Jissensha Press (実践社)publishes the magazine.


The members number about 100. It is quite a theory-orientated group, but it does not have a theoretical journal. The organ is Senki--戦旗. It has a student group.


Bund, National Committee.
The organ is Noroshi - 烽火. In 2001, it stormed into Yasukuni Shrine and came to fisticuffs with a right wing group. It has a student group.

Bund, Proletarian (Military) Flag.
The organ is Proletarian Flag - プロレタリア戦旗
A small group; the numbers unknown.

Bund, Proletarian Communication.
The organ is Proletarian Communication - プロレタリア通信
A small group; the numbers unknown.

Bund, Insurrection faction.
The members are about 30. It used to be called Saragi-faction after the chairman's name. Since the chairman, Saragi, retired, it has been working on anti-globalization. The organs are Comunism 共産主義 and Sekisei (Red Star) - 赤星.

Communist League, (Hibana, the Spark) - 火花

This group is close to Sekigun 赤軍 (Red Army). A member, Takao Enomori, self-emoliated in protest against Israel's invasion of Palestine in March 2002.

Bund, Jokyo (Situation)-faction.
It is not really a faction, but a gathering place for all factions. Its base is a widely distributed magazine, Jokyo - 情況.

Bund, Capital Area Committee.
The organ is Kaze-o-yomu (Reading Winds) - 風を読む
A small group; it was separated from no longer existant Maoist group Kakki-ha (赫旗派) (whose statute can be read at .

A student organization for ecology. Members are from 15 universities, and amount to 110.


Loft Plus One is a live house that features leftist culture (music, talk show, and performance).

Against the Attack of Loft Plus One

Enterprise to terminate Bund
is a private page of Satoshi Sato. The tendency is to criticize Hyuga-Faction.

Akaishi World. This is also critical of Hyuga-Faction.

Former Sekiho-ha, RG

Office-Ebara is a page of Hitoshi Ebara, a theorist and the organizer of one of the radical factions of Bund: RG, 赤報派. He is an organizer of Associe 21, Kansai. His concern involves economic problematics.
Criticism of 赤報派 RG by Eabara himself.
The office regulations of RG.

Former Hanki-ha, Rebel Flag faction

Kozu Yo Juku (Free School) is
a home page of a theorist and the former leader of the faction.

Former Maru-sei-do, Marixist Youth League

がんばろう日本 - Keep it up Japan

Sharo-to--Socialist Workers Party.
The organs are Umi-tsubame (Sea Swallow) - 海つばめ and the theoretical journal, Prometheus. It is led by a member of the early Bund, Hiroyoshi Hayashi. In the early 90s, when the 40-hour as opposed to 48-hour workweek plan was being considered, it insisted on a 20-hour workweek.
English page


In 1967, 社会主義協会Socialist Association, that had been grouped by Yamakawa Hitoshi in 1950, was split into two factions: Sakisaka-faction and Ohta-faction. Around 1968, the student organization and the committee of Kanagawa Prefecture of Ohta-faction departed from the control of the central committee of the Socialist Association. In 1970, when this anti-central group gathered under Power of People (人民の力), there were a few groups that were rejected as being too anarchic. One of them was Internationalism (国際主義).
Beginning in the 1990s, Internationalism(国際主義)
struggled jointly with 社会主義労働者党 Sharo-to--Socialist Workers Party and Workers Network.
English page

Workers Network
The organ is Workers.
It was split from Sharo-to. It is very small.

Workers Zenkyo (National Council)

The organ is Workers.
It was split from Workers network. It seeks to establish a new workers party.

Other Bund Related Groups

Anti-invasion Asian Student Joint Action

AWC, Asia Joint Action
The group is based in Yamaguchi Prefecture.

Student-Youth Network, Confronting New Liberalism and Chauvinism

革共同 - Kaku-Kyo-do
Japan Revolutionary Communist League

Kaku-kyo-do was established originally as a Japanese branch of the international Trotskyist movement. But the factions that became bigger were not necessarily pure Trotskyist?they rather criticized pure Trotskyism and followed the line of “Anti-Imperialism and Anti-Stalinism.” Still today, the two biggest new left groups are branches of Kaku-kyo-do: Chukaku-ha and Kaku-maru-ha, while the groups that follow earlier Trotskyist internationalism have become minor.

The International Revolution Editions
is a collection of crucial documents and writings of early Japanese Trotskyist movements.

Net Magazine
is edited by Makoto Konishi, a former member of Chukaku-ha. He is also known as a Self-Defense Force soldier who refused the order according to his belief. He has been investigating the history of the internal strife (uchi-geba) of Japan's New Left movement in order to revive its moment.
It is part of the site of Shakai-hihyou-sha Press (社会批評社).

The book, Investigate Internal Strife (検証内ゲバ), was published from Tokyo: Shakai-hihyo-sha in 2001. Its subtitle reads: “the negative lesson of the history of Japan's social movement.” It investigates the issues of internal strife (uchi-geba) from various aspects. It includes essays by Makoto Konishi.



Japan Revolutionary Communist League, National Committee.
This is so-called Chukaku-ha (Core Faction). Chukaku-ha is known as engaging in various types of fronts, rather than just preserving itself. Therefore, what follows shows various categories of problematic. The organ is Zenshin (前進). The theory magazine is Communists (共産主義者).
Zenshin Press (前進)
Zenshin Press-English page has descriptions of Chukaku-ha's self definition and history.

Reform for Tokyo Municipal Policy(都革新)is the office of Chukaku-ha associated members of metropolitan assembly, elected from Suginami ward.

Stop the Insurance for Care of the Elderly and Disabled protests one of the most popular and serious issues that Japanese are facing today. Since the new national insurance policy was introduced in April 2000, various contradictions concerning the care system and tax system have been exposed: those who really need care cannot get it; insurance fees that people are paying won't support them when they get old; and so on.

Kokuga Yoshiji Homepage (国賀 祥司ホームページ)is the page of Chukaku-ha associated member of municipal assembly of Izumisano City near Osaka.

Kokuro-Kyoto (国労共闘)--the full name is National Railroad Workers Joint Struggle Council. It is fighting against the decision of the headquarters of Kokuro, National Railroad Workers Union to decompose itself.

Sanichi Rouso (三一労組)is a union of one of the largest left-inclined publishers in Japan, Sanichi Shobo.

Doro-Chiba (動労千葉)
Doro is a union of train motormen. It is in Chiba Prefecture.

Buraku Kaiho Domei(部落解放同盟)
has been passionately working on discrimination issues for a long time. Buraku is the generic name for communities whose people have been historically discriminated against.

Support Innocent Hoshino-san(星野文昭さんを取り戻そう!)is a site proclaiming the innocence of a man who was convicted of killing a policeman in Okinawa in 1971 during the social turmoil surrounding its decision to be independent or part of Japan.

Support Innocent Toyama-san (無実の富山保信さんの再審無罪を勝ち取る会)is also a site for supporting an innocent man who has been prosecuted as a murderer during internal strife (uchi-geba) that took place in 1974.

Block the Road to war, One Million Signature Campaign

The nation-wide student organization, Zen-gaku-ren, was, from the beginning, a place where various sects fought over hegemony. In the early 60s, this strife reached the point where the integrity of Zen-gaku-ren itself was unsustainable. Thereby appeared many Zen-gaku-rens. This is Chukau-ha's Zen-gaku-ren site.



Japan Revolutionary Communist League
(Revolutionary Marxist faction)

The organs are Kaiho [Liberation] - 解放 and Shin-seiki [New Century] - 新世紀. Kaku-maru-ha is the group that considered the conservation and expansion of itself most seriously. Therefore, it did not engage in as many local struggles and fronts as Chukaku-ha did. For one thing, it expanded itself enormously in the railroad motormen's union, Doro (動労).
English page

Kobushi Press (こぶし書房)is the site of the related publisher.
Books in English

Akane Books (あかね書房)is another publisher of the sect.

JR Soren (JR総連)
Japan Confederation of Railway Workers Association. It began when Kokutetsu (National Railroad) became JR (Japan Railway) and the union was decomposed.

JREW (JR東労組)

JR East Sendai (JR東労組仙台)

JRW (JR西労)

Waseda University News(早稲田大学新聞)

The Fourth International Japan

Japan Revolutionary Communist League, The Fourth International. This is a small group remaining after the Fourth International decomposed. It focuses on international situations and anti-globalization. It has a student group. The organs are Kakehashi [Bridge]--(かけはし) and Seinen Sensen [Youth Front] - 青年戦線.

Spartacist Magazine

This is a Japanese section of the International Communist League (Fourth International) (
International Communist League, Japan

The Power of Workers

The national Council of Internationalist Workers


Fourth International Information Archives

Logos (ロゴスの会)

Dentsu Rouso (電通労組)

Asia Solidarity School

Tsuge Press (つげ書房)

Sha-sei-do (社青同)

Socialist Youth League, Liberation faction, the National Association.
In 2002, in Tokushima Prefecture in Shikoku, Masashi Ohta of this group was elected as the mayor, beating the major, conservative candidate. He follows the line of Rosa Luxemburg; at the inauguration, he claimed: “Workers of the world, Unite!” The official members of the group are small, but it has many sympathizers. The organ is Rentai [Unification] - 連帯.

About the mayor of Tokushima Prefecture

The website of sympathizers of the above group is Aozora Kikaku [Blue Sky Projects]--(青空企画)

The Power of people faction.
It is a branch of Liberation Faction. The number is unknown.

Revolutionary Workers Association, Hazama Faction.
It had been a powerful and big sect next to Chukaku-ha, until recently when a group from Meiji University (Kimoto faction) split from it. Thus it turned into a minor faction. Furthermore, because of the horrific strife with Kimoto faction, many were killed, injured, jailed, or fugitives. There is a danger of extinction. The organs are Kaiho [Liberation] 解放 (from Gendaisha Press) and Zen-gaku-ren Pamphlet - 全学連.

Revolutionary Workers Association, Kimoto Faction.
The faction split from Hazama-Faction. Extremely small. Although it had secured rights and interests in Meiji University, it came to be ousted by the university because of its horrific strife with Hazama-Faction. The organs are Kaiho [Liberation] 解放 (from Sekisaisha Press) and Zen-gaku-ren Pamphlet - 全学連.

Structural Reformist [Kokai-ha] (構造改革派)

Workers' Joint Struggle/Council of Labor Union Activists.
Its organ is Gendai Kakumei [Contemporary revolution]--(現代革命). A pro-Italian group split from JCP, holding a Gramscian line of revolution. The members are about 50. It is also known as a group of direct action--such as throwing shoes and paint at National Athletic Meeting. Notwithstanding its being categorized as ‘structural reformist', it denies parliamentary system, and is distinguished from other structural reformists that are more mild. It acts along with anarchists.

Anti-war Network is organized by the same group.

Group Sousei (Green Life)
branched out from Communist Labor Party (共労党)and its youth organization, Proletariat Youth League (プロレタリア青年同盟). The members are about 100. It follows the line of red (communism) and green (ecology) mixture, focusing on the peace movement and local residents' campaigns. It has four to five regional congressmen. The organ is Glocal. It has a student group.
Proletariat Youth league


Front (Socialist League)
is the biggest among red/green mixtures. It loosely organizes local residents' campaigns and independent congressmen of various regions. It does not like to engage in ‘direct actionists.' The organs are Senku [Pioneers] (先駆) and ACT. It has students.

Japanese Communist Party, Left faction,
Pro-China Faction

Worker's Bulletin

Theatre Group Haguruma

Workers Communist Party in Japan.
Its organs are Proletariat and the theory magazine, Proletariat. It was a merger of two Maoist groups: Bund, Kakki-ha (赫旗派) and Japan Communist Party, ML Faction. It is seriously seeking to construct a party. In the day-workers town--Kamagasaki--in Osaka, it is organizing the workers.

Citizen's Party.
The organ is Shinsei [New Life] - 新生.
It was formerly called Movement of Peace and Democracy. It is specialized in election. The number of members is unknown but not small.

People's News, The Jinmin Shinbun - 人民新聞.

Japan labor Party. The organ is 労働新聞

Japan Communist Party, Left faction.
Its organ is Jinmin-no Hoshi (人民の星), People's Star. It has a student group.

Green Party.
Its organ is Nihon Shinbun - 日本新聞. Despite its name, its activities are centered on reddish cultural activities. It has a student group.

Other Miscellaneous Groups related to the New lefts

Com-Mirai (コム未来)

Citizens' Organization to Protest against JCP's Human Rights Violations
It is a site of a group in Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto, where JCP and its student organization, Min-sei, hold hegemony.

JCP Watch is a site that scrutinizes issues around JCP.

So-called Ultra Left

Red Army

There were basically four different paths in the members of the group called Red Army faction of Bund, founded in August 8th 1969. The first one was the group of fifty-three who were arrested during military training in Daibosatsu Touge Mountain in Yamanashi Prefecture, in November 1969. The second one was the group of nine who hijacked a passenger airplane and went to North Korea in March 1970. The third was the group that, together with the members of Japan Communist Party Revolutionary Left faction, organized United Red Army. This group pursued the armed struggle in Japan; some of the members were lynched by other members in their hideaway in the mountains, and the rest were arrested by the police force after a shoot-out in February 1972. The fourth group went to the Middle East to join the struggle of Palestine people in 1972. This last called itself Japan Red Army.

Satr - JRA Concerned is a website for the support group for Japan Red Army members who have been arrested in various places of the world. It contains reports from Palestine and the situations of the prisoners and their trials.
It has a section for Palestine culture.

The Passport (ザパスポート)is the organ of a group that supports the members of Japan Red Army, who returned from the Middle East and were arrested. The group claims that it protects the members from the oppression of the judicial power, but from a stance independent from them.

Kari-no-kai (かりの会)is a website of the group of Bund, Red Army Faction, which hijacked an airplane and went to North Korea in 1970. The reports of their lives and the trials of those who have been arrested in Japan are renewed every month.

Patri is a site of the first chairman of Bund, Red Army faction, Takaya Shiomi. He was arrested in 1969 with other members during a military training in the mountain. After his release from prison, it became clear his had tendency changed. As seen in this website, he is now an anti-American, patriot.

East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線)

Various information concerning East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線)is found in this site: historical documents as well as the ongoing trials. This group is known for its bombings of the headquarters of such big corporations as Mitsui Heavy Industry, Taisei Construction, Hazama Construction, and so on, in the 1970s. The targets were chosen among the symbols of Japan's imperialist invasion of Asia and the companies that directly benefited from it and are today responsible for oppressing the day-workers of Sanya and Kamagasaki Area.

The Suspense Clock (腹腹時計)is the organ of East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front. It was being sold in a few bookshops while the group went underground, but some of the issues were confiscated by the police in the mid 1970s.

Supporters Association News (支援連ニュース)is the organ of the support group for East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front, whose main members are all in jail, some on death-row and others in life imprisonment. The group protests especially against the death sentence and life sentence.

運動経験Undou-Keiken [Activist Experience]

The two magazines-- Undou-Keiken and Impactio--deal with various issues concerning civil acts, but also take seriously the problematic posed by the radicalist group East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front: i.e., the responsibility of the Emperor vis-a-vis Japan's aggression of Asia.


This site contains a lot of anarchist Network and documents in Japan and East Asia.

Sangatsu Shobo,
is a publisher. It republishes Japanese Anarchist Classics published by Black Front Press (黒色戦線社)

Anarchy in Nippon is nevertheless not a site of active anarchist group. It has various information on anarchism.
It also has a brief history of anarchism in Japan in English.

RRU, Japan
Anarcho-Syndicalist Journal
is a site for introducing the politico-theoretical current of anarchism in the world. Most of the materials are translations from European languages.

Takenaka Ro's page.
Takenaka was a journalist and anarchist. He wrote many essays and books about pop figures with his social and political concerns. He was known for his love of Okinawa (Ryukyu), its culture, and its autonomy.



Issui Kai (一水会)is considered as a new right. The majority of right wing organizations are just the proxy of power. But it is a serious nationalist group, i.e., opposing Israel's occupation of Palestinian land. Its organ is named Reconquista (レコンキスタ)in Spanish, indicating that it seeks to recapture the dignity, sovereignty, and the land that have been deprived since the postwar US occupation.